Examples of such questions include: Information technologies involve all four of the above categories, but this study will only report on the last two. The Qualitative Report [On-line serial], 3 2. Journal of Management Information Systems, 12 4 , The researcher had no control over the behavioral events, which is a characteristic of case studies. The unit of analysis defines what the case is—for example, an event, a process, an individual, a group, or an organisation GAO, ; Yin,

Its unit s of analysis, 4. Yin listed six sources of evidence for data collection in the case study protocol: In this article, the methodology to accomplish those goals and objectives will be examined. Such studies may also identify differences between individual cases with a view of potentially generating a classificatory framework Gerring, For instance, information about organisational functional areas, reporting structures, and roles and responsibilities can be obtained from a range of internal documents e. As surveys are usually considered as the preferred method for theory testing, providing clear justification for the use of deductive explanatory case studies is imperative Barratt et al. Quantitative, Qualitative, Comparative, and Historical

tellis w 1997 introduction to case study the qualitative report

Validity and reliability in qualitative market research: Trends, research outcomes, and future research implications. All types of relevant documents should be added to the database, as well as tabular materials, narratives, and other notes.

tellis w introduction to case study the qualitative report

Chronicle of Higher Education, 41 10A Not all sources are essential in every case study, but the importance of multiple sources of data to the reliability of the study is well established Stake, ; Yin, Analyse The analyse stage relies on theoretical propositions and other strategies, considers and employs analytic techniques, explores rival explanations, and displays data facts apart from interpretations Yin, The conclusions will also be presented in the subsequent article, and will once again follow the goals and objectives outlined in the introductory article and confirm that what was proposed was in fact accomplished.


It is typically a system of action rather than an individual or group of individuals.

tellis w 1997 introduction to case study the qualitative report

Potential practical benefits to the case study organisation include benchmarking against best-practices and other organisations, and rich descriptions of the phenomenon under investigation. Threats to external validity include interaction of the causal relationship with units, interaction of the causal relationship over treatment variations, interaction of the causal relationship with outcomes, interaction of the causal relationship with settings, and context dependent mediation Shadish et al.

A contingency coefficient for each cross tabulation indicated the strength of the relationship Reynolds, tsudy Although this is a case study, and its findings limited to one program, the framework can be explored as a means to examining transformational leadership as a means to advancing socially-responsible citizenship-based practices in Planning curricula. Table 1 indicates the strengths and weaknesses of each type: As previously discussed, coding is a key step in qualitative data analysis.

Yin recommended that this be conducted in a seminar format if there are multiple investigators. The ordinal items in the questionnaires were analyzed using the mean and median. The Leadership Quarterly, 20 1 repor, This must be done in a way that will not bias the results.

Yin identified six primary sources of evidence for case study research. Public servants require a mastery of techniques for qualitaitve engagement: The existence of several “how” questions in the questionnaires make the study explanatory as well, which is not uncommon Yin, Journal of Advanced Nursing, 28 2 The experience of tto interviewer with regard to technique and subject matter expertise is a key factor in identifying and maximising the collection of relevant information.


However, while it has often been viewed as a soft easy and not particularly rigorous research method, it is actually remarkably difficult to execute well in practice. The unit of analysis defines what the case is—for example, an event, a qualitativ, an individual, a group, or an organisation GAO, ; Yin, Introoduction including both quantitative and qualitative data, case study helps explain both the process Current Urban StudiesVol.

The criteria for interpreting the findings Yin,p. Design and methods 4 ed. Levy feport a single-case design for the study at the University of Arizona.

tellis w 1997 introduction to case study the qualitative report

In case studies, this could be done by using multiple sources of data Yin, Enter the email address you signed up with and we’ll email you a reset link. Both the documents were available in the university Library. The art of case study research. That methodology will follow the recommendation of Yin and has four stages: